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  • Course No E – 1400
  • PDH Units 7.00

Course No E - 1400
PDH Units 7.00

Profile Photo
  • Course No E – 1400
  • PDH Units 7.00

Course No E - 1400
PDH Units 7.00

Intended Audience: civil & environment engineers


Throughout the United States and Canada, millions of waste tires are generated each year. Huge stockpiles of waste tires represent an enormous depot of lost energy, materials, and money. Moreover, waste tires present a number of environmental, health and safety hazards to the public and represent a serious public nuisance. While scrap tires represent only about 2 percent of the total solid waste stream in industrialized countries, tires decompose slowly. This combined with limited uses of scrap tires and limited methods of disposal results in stockpiling of scrap tires. According to the Rubber Tire Manufacturer Association, US annual tire production is about 270 million and Canadian annual tire production is about 25 million. US scrap tire stockpiles are estimated to be about 700 to 800 million tires, with 17 US states having individual stockpiles with at least 1 million scrap tires. The US EPA estimates that 9 million scrap tires are exported annually from the US. Most of the exported tires go to undeveloped countries for further use on vehicles and eventually into stockpiles. This course outlines three uses of scrap tires as earth retaining structures. Included are example designs of retaining walls that utilize the following types of products as the basic structural unit: (a) individual tires filled with gravel or low strength flowable fill, (b) bales of compressed tires, (c) compressed tire bales encapsulated in reinforced concrete. The design charts have been developed for varying wall heights and batter, as well as for various loading conditions. This course is based on the publication, “Use of Whole Tires in Earth Retaining Structures” by the Texas DOT, US DOT, FHWA and The Center for Multidisciplinary Research in Transportation at Texas Tech University. The techniques and methodologies described in this course document are evolving rapidly. With the increasing number of scrap tires in the US and Canada, the problem of scrap tire disposal will only grow. Regulated stockpiles and illegal dumps pose major environmental and safety problems, such as combustibility and possible toxins in the leachate. They also provide habitat for insects such as mosquitoes. Mechanically stabilized earth and gravity walls can be an effective use of large quantities of scrap tires. Scrap tire earth retaining structures appear to be economically competitive and no harder to construct than conventional walls. While the exact costs of all types are unknown, the assumption can easily made that the scrap tire walls will be cheaper.

Learning Objectives

At the successful conclusion of this course, you’ll be able to identify and discuss:
  • Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires
  • Tire Pyrolysis
  • Scrap Tires in Civil Engineering Applications
  • Wet Poured Layers
  • Rubber Modified Asphalt (RMA)
  • Marine Reefs and Shoreline Protection
  • Earth Retaining and Erosion Control
  • Flexible Retaining Systems
  • Tire Boxes (Concrete Boxes Filled with Compressed Tires)
  • Bulkhead Erosion Control with Tire Boxes
  • Perimeter Wall with Tire Boxes
  • Design Criteria of Tire Boxes
  • Different Applications of Tire Boxes
  • Features and Benefits of Using Tire Boxes in Retaining Walls
  • Economics of Construction with Tire Boxes
  • Tire Baling
  • Summary of Test Results on Tire Bales
  • Benefits of Using Baled Whole Tires
  • Applications of Baled Tires
  • Shotcrete as A Facing Material for Tire Retaining Walls
  • Stucco as a Facing Material for Tire Retaining Walls
  • Vegetative Covering as a Facing Material for Tire Retaining Walls
  • Geofabric as a Facing Material for Tire Retaining Walls
  • Concrete Blocks as a Facing Material for Tire Retaining Walls
  • Combinations of Facing Material for Tire Retaining Walls
  • Stability Analysis and Design of Tire Retaining Walls
  • High Volume Application of Scrap Tire retaining Walls
  • Economic Analysis of Scrap Tire retaining Walls and Balers
  • Environmental Impact of Scrap Tire retaining Walls

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